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Tuổi 07-08-2009, 11:43 AM   #1
hoctinhoc
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Trình tự 1 thiết lập kết nối TCP/IP
Trình tự 1 thiết lập kết nối TCP/IP


Transmission Control Protocol
Functional Specification

implementation of a trade-off between memory and messages to provide
information for this checking.

The simplest three-way handshake is shown in figure 7 below. The
figures should be interpreted in the following way. Each line is
numbered for reference purposes. Right arrows (-->) indicate
departure of a TCP segment from TCP A to TCP B, or arrival of a
segment at B from A. Left arrows (<--), indicate the reverse.
Ellipsis (...) indicates a segment which is still in the network
(delayed). An "XXX" indicates a segment which is lost or rejected.
Comments appear in parentheses. TCP states represent the state AFTER
the departure or arrival of the segment (whose contents are shown in
the center of each line). Segment contents are shown in abbreviated
form, with sequence number, control flags, and ACK field. Other
fields such as window, addresses, lengths, and text have been left out
in the interest of clarity.

TCP A TCP B

1. CLOSED LISTEN

2. SYN-SENT --> <SEQ=100><CTL=SYN> --> SYN-RECEIVED

3. ESTABLISHED <-- <SEQ=300><ACK=101><CTL=SYN,ACK> <-- SYN-RECEIVED

4. ESTABLISHED --> <SEQ=101><ACK=301><CTL=ACK> --> ESTABLISHED

5. ESTABLISHED --> <SEQ=101><ACK=301><CTL=ACK><DATA> --> ESTABLISHED

Basic 3-Way Handshake for Connection Synchronization

Figure 7.

In line 2 of figure 7, TCP A begins by sending a SYN segment
indicating that it will use sequence numbers starting with sequence
number 100. In line 3, TCP B sends a SYN and acknowledges the SYN it
received from TCP A. Note that the acknowledgment field indicates TCP
B is now expecting to hear sequence 101, acknowledging the SYN which
occupied sequence 100.

At line 4, TCP A responds with an empty segment containing an ACK for
TCP B's SYN; and in line 5, TCP A sends some data. Note that the
sequence number of the segment in line 5 is the same as in line 4
because the ACK does not occupy sequence number space (if it did, we
would wind up ACKing ACK's!).

[Page 31]

September 1981
Transmission Control Protocol
Functional Specification

Simultaneous initiation is only slightly more complex, as is shown in
figure 8. Each TCP cycles from CLOSED to SYN-SENT to SYN-RECEIVED to
ESTABLISHED.

TCP A TCP B

1. CLOSED CLOSED

2. SYN-SENT --> <SEQ=100><CTL=SYN> ...

3. SYN-RECEIVED <-- <SEQ=300><CTL=SYN> <-- SYN-SENT

4. ... <SEQ=100><CTL=SYN> --> SYN-RECEIVED

5. SYN-RECEIVED --> <SEQ=100><ACK=301><CTL=SYN,ACK> ...

6. ESTABLISHED <-- <SEQ=300><ACK=101><CTL=SYN,ACK> <-- SYN-RECEIVED

7. ... <SEQ=101><ACK=301><CTL=ACK> --> ESTABLISHED

Simultaneous Connection Synchronization

Figure 8.

The principle reason for the three-way handshake is to prevent old
duplicate connection initiations from causing confusion. To deal with
this, a special control message, reset, has been devised. If the
receiving TCP is in a non-synchronized state (i.e., SYN-SENT,
SYN-RECEIVED), it returns to LISTEN on receiving an acceptable reset.
If the TCP is in one of the synchronized states (ESTABLISHED,
FIN-WAIT-1, FIN-WAIT-2, CLOSE-WAIT, CLOSING, LAST-ACK, TIME-WAIT), it
aborts the connection and informs its user. We discuss this latter
case under "half-open" connections below.

[Page 32]

September 1981
Transmission Control Protocol
Functional Specification

TCP A TCP B

1. CLOSED LISTEN

2. SYN-SENT --> <SEQ=100><CTL=SYN> ...

3. (duplicate) ... <SEQ=90><CTL=SYN> --> SYN-RECEIVED

4. SYN-SENT <-- <SEQ=300><ACK=91><CTL=SYN,ACK> <-- SYN-RECEIVED

5. SYN-SENT --> <SEQ=91><CTL=RST> --> LISTEN

6. ... <SEQ=100><CTL=SYN> --> SYN-RECEIVED

7. SYN-SENT <-- <SEQ=400><ACK=101><CTL=SYN,ACK> <-- SYN-RECEIVED

8. ESTABLISHED --> <SEQ=101><ACK=401><CTL=ACK> --> ESTABLISHED

Recovery from Old Duplicate SYN

Figure 9.

As a simple example of recovery from old duplicates, consider
figure 9. At line 3, an old duplicate SYN arrives at TCP B. TCP B
cannot tell that this is an old duplicate, so it responds normally
(line 4). TCP A detects that the ACK field is incorrect and returns a
RST (reset) with its SEQ field selected to make the segment
believable. TCP B, on receiving the RST, returns to the LISTEN state.
When the original SYN (pun intended) finally arrives at line 6, the
synchronization proceeds normally. If the SYN at line 6 had arrived
before the RST, a more complex exchange might have occurred with RST's
sent in both directions.

Half-Open Connections and Other Anomalies

An established connection is said to be "half-open" if one of the
TCPs has closed or aborted the connection at its end without the
knowledge of the other, or if the two ends of the connection have
become desynchronized owing to a crash that resulted in loss of
memory. Such connections will automatically become reset if an
attempt is made to send data in either direction. However, half-open
connections are expected to be unusual, and the recovery procedure is
mildly involved.

If at site A the connection no longer exists, then an attempt by the

[Page 33]

September 1981
Transmission Control Protocol
Functional Specification

user at site B to send any data on it will result in the site B TCP
receiving a reset control message. Such a message indicates to the
site B TCP that something is wrong, and it is expected to abort the
connection.

Assume that two user processes A and B are communicating with one
another when a crash occurs causing loss of memory to A's TCP.
Depending on the operating system supporting A's TCP, it is likely
that some error recovery mechanism exists. When the TCP is up again,
A is likely to start again from the beginning or from a recovery
point. As a result, A will probably try to OPEN the connection again
or try to SEND on the connection it believes open. In the latter
case, it receives the error message "connection not open" from the
local (A's) TCP. In an attempt to establish the connection, A's TCP
will send a segment containing SYN. This scenario leads to the
example shown in figure 10. After TCP A crashes, the user attempts to
re-open the connection. TCP B, in the meantime, thinks the connection
is open.

TCP A TCP B

1. (CRASH) (send 300,receive 100)

2. CLOSED ESTABLISHED

3. SYN-SENT --> <SEQ=400><CTL=SYN> --> (??)

4. (!!) <-- <SEQ=300><ACK=100><CTL=ACK> <-- ESTABLISHED

5. SYN-SENT --> <SEQ=100><CTL=RST> --> (Abort!!)

6. SYN-SENT CLOSED

7. SYN-SENT --> <SEQ=400><CTL=SYN> -->

Half-Open Connection Discovery

Figure 10.

When the SYN arrives at line 3, TCP B, being in a synchronized state,
and the incoming segment outside the window, responds with an
acknowledgment indicating what sequence it next expects to hear (ACK
100). TCP A sees that this segment does not acknowledge anything it
sent and, being unsynchronized, sends a reset (RST) because it has
detected a half-open connection. TCP B aborts at line 5. TCP A will

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September 1981
Transmission Control Protocol
Functional Specification

continue to try to establish the connection; the problem is now
reduced to the basic 3-way handshake of figure 7.

An interesting alternative case occurs when TCP A crashes and TCP B
tries to send data on what it thinks is a synchronized connection.
This is illustrated in figure 11. In this case, the data arriving at
TCP A from TCP B (line 2) is unacceptable because no such connection
exists, so TCP A sends a RST. The RST is acceptable so TCP B
processes it and aborts the connection.

TCP A TCP B

1. (CRASH) (send 300,receive 100)

2. (??) <-- <SEQ=300><ACK=100><DATA=10><CTL=ACK> <-- ESTABLISHED

3. --> <SEQ=100><CTL=RST> --> (ABORT!!)

Active Side Causes Half-Open Connection Discovery

Figure 11.

In figure 12, we find the two TCPs A and B with passive connections
waiting for SYN. An old duplicate arriving at TCP B (line 2) stirs B
into action. A SYN-ACK is returned (line 3) and causes TCP A to
generate a RST (the ACK in line 3 is not acceptable). TCP B accepts
the reset and returns to its passive LISTEN state.

TCP A TCP B

1. LISTEN LISTEN

2. ... <SEQ=Z><CTL=SYN> --> SYN-RECEIVED

3. (??) <-- <SEQ=X><ACK=Z+1><CTL=SYN,ACK> <-- SYN-RECEIVED

4. --> <SEQ=Z+1><CTL=RST> --> (return to LISTEN!)

5. LISTEN LISTEN

Old Duplicate SYN Initiates a Reset on two Passive Sockets

Figure 12.

[Page 35]

September 1981
Transmission Control Protocol
Functional Specification

A variety of other cases are possible, all of which are accounted for
by the following rules for RST generation and processing.

Reset Generation

As a general rule, reset (RST) must be sent whenever a segment arrives
which apparently is not intended for the current connection. A reset
must not be sent if it is not clear that this is the case.

There are three groups of states:

1. If the connection does not exist (CLOSED) then a reset is sent
in response to any incoming segment except another reset. In
particular, SYNs addressed to a non-existent connection are rejected
by this means.

If the incoming segment has an ACK field, the reset takes its
sequence number from the ACK field of the segment, otherwise the
reset has sequence number zero and the ACK field is set to the sum
of the sequence number and segment length of the incoming segment.
The connection remains in the CLOSED state.

2. If the connection is in any non-synchronized state (LISTEN,
SYN-SENT, SYN-RECEIVED), and the incoming segment acknowledges
something not yet sent (the segment carries an unacceptable ACK), or
if an incoming segment has a security level or compartment which
does not exactly match the level and compartment requested for the
connection, a reset is sent.

If our SYN has not been acknowledged and the precedence level of the
incoming segment is higher than the precedence level requested then
either raise the local precedence level (if allowed by the user and
the system) or send a reset; or if the precedence level of the
incoming segment is lower than the precedence level requested then
continue as if the precedence matched exactly (if the remote TCP
cannot raise the precedence level to match ours this will be
detected in the next segment it sends, and the connection will be
terminated then). If our SYN has been acknowledged (perhaps in this
incoming segment) the precedence level of the incoming segment must
match the local precedence level exactly, if it does not a reset
must be sent.

If the incoming segment has an ACK field, the reset takes its
sequence number from the ACK field of the segment, otherwise the
reset has sequence number zero and the ACK field is set to the sum
of the sequence number and segment length of the incoming segment.
The connection remains in the same state.

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September 1981
Transmission Control Protocol
Functional Specification

3. If the connection is in a synchronized state (ESTABLISHED,
FIN-WAIT-1, FIN-WAIT-2, CLOSE-WAIT, CLOSING, LAST-ACK, TIME-WAIT),
any unacceptable segment (out of window sequence number or
unacceptible acknowledgment number) must elicit only an empty
acknowledgment segment containing the current send-sequence number
and an acknowledgment indicating the next sequence number expected
to be received, and the connection remains in the same state.

If an incoming segment has a security level, or compartment, or
precedence which does not exactly match the level, and compartment,
and precedence requested for the connection,a reset is sent and
connection goes to the CLOSED state. The reset takes its sequence
number from the ACK field of the incoming segment.

Reset Processing

In all states except SYN-SENT, all reset (RST) segments are validated
by checking their SEQ-fields. A reset is valid if its sequence number
is in the window. In the SYN-SENT state (a RST received in response
to an initial SYN), the RST is acceptable if the ACK field
acknowledges the SYN.

The receiver of a RST first validates it, then changes state. If the
receiver was in the LISTEN state, it ignores it. If the receiver was
in SYN-RECEIVED state and had previously been in the LISTEN state,
then the receiver returns to the LISTEN state, otherwise the receiver
aborts the connection and goes to the CLOSED state. If the receiver
was in any other state, it aborts the connection and advises the user
and goes to the CLOSED state.

3.5. Closing a Connection

CLOSE is an operation meaning "I have no more data to send." The
notion of closing a full-duplex connection is subject to ambiguous
interpretation, of course, since it may not be obvious how to treat
the receiving side of the connection. We have chosen to treat CLOSE
in a simplex fashion. The user who CLOSEs may continue to RECEIVE
until he is told that the other side has CLOSED also. Thus, a program
could initiate several SENDs followed by a CLOSE, and then continue to
RECEIVE until signaled that a RECEIVE failed because the other side
has CLOSED. We assume that the TCP will signal a user, even if no
RECEIVEs are outstanding, that the other side has closed, so the user
can terminate his side gracefully. A TCP will reliably deliver all
buffers SENT before the connection was CLOSED so a user who expects no
data in return need only wait to hear the connection was CLOSED
successfully to know that all his data was received at the destination
TCP. Users must keep reading connections they close for sending until
the TCP says no more data.

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September 1981
Transmission Control Protocol
Functional Specification

There are essentially three cases:

1) The user initiates by telling the TCP to CLOSE the connection

2) The remote TCP initiates by sending a FIN control signal

3) Both users CLOSE simultaneously

Case 1: Local user initiates the close

In this case, a FIN segment can be constructed and placed on the
outgoing segment queue. No further SENDs from the user will be
accepted by the TCP, and it enters the FIN-WAIT-1 state. RECEIVEs
are allowed in this state. All segments preceding and including FIN
will be retransmitted until acknowledged. When the other TCP has
both acknowledged the FIN and sent a FIN of its own, the first TCP
can ACK this FIN. Note that a TCP receiving a FIN will ACK but not
send its own FIN until its user has CLOSED the connection also.

Case 2: TCP receives a FIN from the network

If an unsolicited FIN arrives from the network, the receiving TCP
can ACK it and tell the user that the connection is closing. The
user will respond with a CLOSE, upon which the TCP can send a FIN to
the other TCP after sending any remaining data. The TCP then waits
until its own FIN is acknowledged whereupon it deletes the
connection. If an ACK is not forthcoming, after the user timeout
the connection is aborted and the user is told.

Case 3: both users close simultaneously

A simultaneous CLOSE by users at both ends of a connection causes
FIN segments to be exchanged. When all segments preceding the FINs
have been processed and acknowledged, each TCP can ACK the FIN it
has received. Both will, upon receiving these ACKs, delete the
connection.

[Page 38]

September 1981
Transmission Control Protocol
Functional Specification

TCP A TCP B

1. ESTABLISHED ESTABLISHED

2. (Close)
FIN-WAIT-1 --> <SEQ=100><ACK=300><CTL=FIN,ACK> --> CLOSE-WAIT

3. FIN-WAIT-2 <-- <SEQ=300><ACK=101><CTL=ACK> <-- CLOSE-WAIT

4. (Close)
TIME-WAIT <-- <SEQ=300><ACK=101><CTL=FIN,ACK> <-- LAST-ACK

5. TIME-WAIT --> <SEQ=101><ACK=301><CTL=ACK> --> CLOSED

6. (2 MSL)
CLOSED

Normal Close Sequence

Figure 13.

TCP A TCP B

1. ESTABLISHED ESTABLISHED

2. (Close) (Close)
FIN-WAIT-1 --> <SEQ=100><ACK=300><CTL=FIN,ACK> ... FIN-WAIT-1
<-- <SEQ=300><ACK=100><CTL=FIN,ACK> <--
... <SEQ=100><ACK=300><CTL=FIN,ACK> -->

3. CLOSING --> <SEQ=101><ACK=301><CTL=ACK> ... CLOSING
<-- <SEQ=301><ACK=101><CTL=ACK> <--
... <SEQ=101><ACK=301><CTL=ACK> -->

4. TIME-WAIT TIME-WAIT
(2 MSL) (2 MSL)
CLOSED CLOSED

Simultaneous Close Sequence

Figure 14.

[Page 39]

September 1981
Transmission Control Protocol
Functional Specification


Theo: RFC 793

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